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Ants, Insects Most Dominant on Earth



Throw chunks of food on the ground, the first animal to reach it is ants. This is true in most of the mainland where there are ants. In terms of the number of individuals and biomass (weight), fleet ants dominate nearly all terrestrial habitats in the world. Day or night, the army ants vigorously explore the mainland, so they can find food before the other animals find it.

With the ecological dominance, it was natural that the ants can be found everywhere. From tall buildings to lush forests, from the coast to the area subalpin. Ants are also present in the soil up to a tall tree, in the desert to tundra. In fact, today you are likely not far from worker ants roaming around you.

Ant dominance is also reflected in the number of insect biomass. In the composition of the biomass of insects in the world, at least one-third consists of ants. The amount is quite large considering the total number of ant species is less than 2% of the total number of insect species. The number of ant species in the world estimated at 20,000, and 12,000 of them have been known to science. In Indonesia alone there are about 1,500 species have been described, but it is estimated there are about 500 species remain to be discovered.



The identification of ant species in Indonesia is difficult because there are at least taxonomic study of ants here. Even so, do not need a complex research to find out how many species of ants roaming around our house. When a simple observation, it can be seen at least 3 species of ants around the house. Several different species more can be found on the home page.

When you observe the ants in the community around you, do not be surprised if you find various living species in a relatively narrow area. Most ants are small, with a length of less than 5 mm. With this small body, the resources needed to survive relatively small anyway. Thus more ant population can survive in a small area compared to the animals that are larger in size.

Moreover, an ant colony has a system of division of labor in the fleet workers. In this system, each member of a colony of ants running certain jobs according to the needs of the colony at that time. Jobs colonies are foraging, nest building, keeping the enemy, care for chicks, producing eggs, or reproduction. With the division of labor, the work of the colony performed effectively and efficiently thereby increasing resilience and survival of the colony.

Wood ant colonies:


Red ant colony:


Black ant colonies:


Ant species coexistence has ecological niche is different. The difference in these niches to reduce competition among ant colonies to suppress the population. For example, one species of ants choose to search for small-sized food particles, other species choose a large food particles. There are ants that chose nest on the ground, there are cracks in the wood, some are in between the leaves of the tree. There were ants are nocturnal, some are active during the day. Given the differences in life strategy, ant species can share resources environment.

Ants stamped his little feet on earth since 90 million years ago, predating the new man appeared about 250,000 years ago. However, only since 10 million years ago the number of ant species and populations to develop and achieve such abundance today. In the history of his long life, ant species evolved adaptations of complex and interesting in terms of morphology, physiology, and social behavior. An example is the emergence of ant farm, farmer ants, ant social parasite, silk weaver ants, flying ants, giant ants, even ants can blow himself. Given the complexity of such a life, do not be surprised if the ants are considered as the culmination of the evolution of insects, just as humans are the top of vertebrate evolution.

TYPES OF ANTS

Ants Pristomyrmex punctatus with the aphid symbiosis partner:



Ant Crematogaster sp. together anakannya in decayed wood:


Paratrechina longicornis Ants interact:


Black ants on the leaf surface Dolichoderus thoracicus:


Ants site :


ANTS IN THE WORLD'S MOST DANGEROUS :


Coptotermes Formosanus Shiraki

Apparently, the animal named Ant (Ant) there is also a danger, despite its not how much, but due to the resulting very fatal. Ant is named: Coptotermes Formosanus Shiraki. Ant is a kind of war that are plant pests. Forms large ants, venomous and can be found in the graveyard, reddish hills.


Now the ants achieve dominance in terms of the number of individuals and biomass of terrestrial creatures. In its natural habitat, the ants have ecological roles are important. In terrestrial ecosystems, ants are major predators on small invertebrates. Ants can explore vast areas of land, causing the lifting of soil nutrients. Ants form a symbiosis with a variety of insects, plants, and fungi. Without symbiosis with ants, the organism will decrease the population to extinction. Aside from being predators, ants are an important prey for a variety of insects, spiders, reptiles, birds, frogs, even for carnivorous plants.

Run ant role so crucial that it is said that if the ant species, thousands of species of animals and plants will go extinct. Even more than that, almost all terrestrial ecosystems will be weakened due to the reduced complexity of the ecosystem. The presence of ants is often compared to the human existence and destruction of nature does, which is that if humans became extinct from this earth, the balance will return to the lush and natural as the human population before the explosion occurred. However, the fact of human existence is not absolutely have to destroy nature, because humans have always had the option of destroying the environment or maintain it. It's just, man must be wise in deciding choice and not repeat the mistakes that have been committed.

If we can understand the language of ants, maybe they will say, and give an answer to us, and we can learn from them. Like the ancient thinkers were amazed at the behavior of ants. Solomon said: 'Hey slacker, go to the ant, consider ways and be wise.











10 Unique Facts About Kissing


What the heck, special a kiss? Why do people in the West often kissing, and very expressive in doing so? And, although many say that kissing is part of "Western culture", but yet until now the West still often discuss the kiss. In fact, of the fundamental issues such as how a good kiss.

You think you've got enough knowledge about kissing? Wait a minute, please read the unique facts about kissing, as summarized by Laura Schaefer, author of Man with Farm Seeks Woman with Tractor: The Best and Worst Personal Ads of All Time.

1. How to position a cool kiss? You are yet to find the right position, it may be taking inspiration from this fact: Two out of every three couples cocked his head to the right when kissing.

2. We kissed using a facial muscle, orbicularis oris, which serves to move the lips to kiss. A very light use only two muscles. But when you launch a passionate kiss, you use all 34 muscles of the face. So, frequently kissing your face so tight.

3. Just like fingerprints or snowflakes, no two lip-like traces.

4. Making out both to heal the pain. Research shows that the activity of kissing can improve skin firmness, helps blood circulation, prevents tooth decay, and even expel a headache.

5. The average person spends 336 hours of his whole life to kiss. I do not know how long time it used to kiss every day. Own endurance record held by couples kissing Rich Langley and Louisa Almedovar, capable of kissing for 30 hours and 59 minutes.

6. Some people love to write the letter "X" as a sign of a kiss, which is usually listed at the end of the letter. The letter "X" was started in the Middle Ages, when people were unable to read using the "X" as a signature. They then kiss this mark as a sign of sincerity. Finally, the "X" was then considered to represent the kiss itself.

7. Need adrenaline activities? Kissing alone. This activity of neurotransmitter release in the brain, which also occurs when we take action with the thrilling skydiving, bungee jumping, or running.

8. When he admitted to having sex with five women, that means he actually just made love with two women. Conversely, women who claimed to have only ever had sex with two men, in fact he had sex with five men. So many people used to say. I do not know what he would say if he knew that the average woman kissing 29 men before she married.

9. Men who kiss their partners before leaving office on average have higher incomes than those who do not. Come on, start now sweet talk your partner before he hurried off!

10. Hollywood movies featuring lots of passionate kissing scene. Longest ever kiss in movie history was between Jane Wyman and Regis Tommey in the movie You're in the Army Now (1941). They kiss lasted 3 minutes and 5 seconds. Does it include to be repeated during take by take, or at rehearsal, huh?

History and Process Kiswa (Kaaba Cloth Cover)


At the temple we often see a kiswa (cloth / black duvet cover Ka'bah). The purpose of the installation of the fabric it is to protect the temple wall of dirt, dust, and heat can make it become corrupted. In addition it also serves as a decoration kiswah Ka'bah.

Historically, the Kaaba has been given since the time of Prophet Ismail kiswah U.S., son of Prophet Abraham. But there is no record that tells the time of the Prophet Ismail kiswah made ​​of what is and what color. New in the leadership of Raja Asad Abu Bakr Himyar of Yemen, stated that protect Kaaba kiswa is made of woven fabric.


Policy Himyar king according to attach kiswah Arab tradition that developed since the time of Ismail as followed by his successors. At the time of Qusay ibn Kilab, one of the prominent ancestor Prophet Muhammad, the Kaaba kiswa installation is the responsibility of the Arab tribe of Quraysh.

Prophet Muhammad himself had also ordered the creation of kiswah fabric originating from Yemen. While the four caliphs successor to the Prophet Muhammad are included in the Khulafa al-Rashidun ordered kiswah manufacture of cotton yarn.

Meanwhile, in the Ottoman era Abbasiyah, the fourth Caliph al-Mahdi ordered that kiswah Khuz made of silk fabric. During his reign, kiswah imported from Egypt and Yemen.

According to historical records, kiswah black color is not always as it is today. Kiswah first made of woven fabric of Yemen it is red and berlajur-lane. While in the Caliph Mamun ar-Rashid, kiswah made with a white background. Kiswah also made the green on the orders of the Caliph An-Nasir Abbasids (16th century AD) and kiswah also been made yellow by the command of Muhammad ibn Sabaktakin.

Replacement kiswah colorful over the years, seems to disturb the minds of the Caliph al-Mamun of the Abbasid dynasty, until finally it was decided that it should be the color kiswah fixed from time to time is black. Until now, though kiswah replaced every year, but the color is always black.

In the golden era of Islam, the responsibility of making and supplying kiswah always borne by each of the ruling caliph in the Hijaz, Saudi Arabia at any time. Although kiswah always the responsibility of the caliphs, some outside the land of Hijaz king had presented the government kiswah Hijaz.

First, kiswa is made of black silk that had come from Egypt cost the cash taken from the Egyptian kingdom. The tradition of sending kiswah of Egypt began in the time of Sultan Sulaiman who ruled Egypt about the year's 950-H until the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha in the late 1920's.


Kaaba without kiswah

Every year, kiswah-beautiful kiswah made in Egypt was taken to Makkah on a stretcher through the beautiful land called mahmal. Kiswah along with other gifts in mahmal come along with a group of Egyptian pilgrims were headed by a amirul hajj.

Amirul hajj was officially designated by the government of the kingdom of Egypt. From Egypt, after the handover ceremony, escorted mahmal Egyptian army went to the Suez Canal with a special vessel to the port of Jeddah. Arriving in Hijaz, was paraded by mahmal very festive ceremony heading to Mecca.

Delivery kiswah of Egypt's never too late to start the month Dhu al-Hijjah. It happened some time after the outbreak of World War I. Kiswah delivery delays occur due to unsafe atmosphere conducive due to World War I.

Seeing the situation is not good at the time, King Ibn Saud (founder of Saudi Arabia) took the decision to immediately make himself kiswah given on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, kiswah kiswah old should be replaced with a new one. Attempt is successful with the establishment of weaving company located in Kampung Jiyad, Mecca.

After World War I ended, King Farouq I of Egypt sends back to the land of Hijaz kiswah. But look at the conditions at the time, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under King Abdul Aziz bin Saud decided to make their own kiswa factory in Makkah in 1931. Until finally kiswah made in Saudi Arabia today.

Kiswah fabric has a unique and distinctive advantages. Spun-yarn spun gold and silver come together compose a scratch kalam Divine. kiswah be very valuable, not only because of the words of a holy God who spun on kiswah, but also because of its beauty and exotic yarns spun gold and silver on its surface.

The combination of gold and silver on the calligraphy adorning kiswah has exceptional artistic value. For making requires skill and outstanding talent because not everyone is able to make such beautiful art. Kiswah a symbol of strength, simplicity, grandeur too.

Process Kiswah

Kiswah first made made by a craftsman named Adnan bin Ad with raw camel. But in its development, kiswah made of silk fabric. To create a kiswah requires 670 kg of silk, or about 600 square meters of silk fabric consisting of 47 pieces of cloth. Each piece is a length of 14 meters and a width of 95 cm.

Size was adjusted to cover the Kaaba cube field on all four sides. As for the ornament of gold spun required 120 kg of gold and several hundred kilograms of silver.



Since 1931, kiswa to cover Kaaba manufactured in a factory located in the suburbs of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. In the factory, the manufacture of modern kiswah done using modern weaving machines. In the factory kiswah the area is 10 hectares it employed about 240 craftsmen kiswah.

In the factory, kiswah made ​​in bulk. That's where everything is prepared from design, prototype drawing calligraphy, washing silk yarn, knitting ground fabric, thread creation of kilograms of pure gold and silver to the spinning calligraphy of gold and silver thread, and sewing end.



Although kiswah appears black when viewed from the outside, but the inside kiswah it turns white. One sentence contained in spun gold kiswah are sentences creed, Jalla Jalallah Allah, La ilaha illallah, and the Prophet Muhammad. Surat Ali Imran: 96, Al-Baqarah: 144, surah Al-Fatihah, Surah Al-Ikhlash Terpintal beautifully in gold thread to decorate kiswah.

Calligraphy is used to decorate kiswah consists of verses related to Hajj and also asthma-asthma Kabah glorified God. Calligraphy ornaments made ​​of gold and silver sparkled beautifully when exposed to sunlight.


Because it uses raw materials from objects that are very valuable as silk, gold, and silver, the price is very expensive kiswah around Rp 50 billion.

So every year the Bureau of Endowments Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to provide funding of about USD 50 billion for the creation kiswah. According to the history, tradition kiswah replacement is done each year there since the time of Caliph al-Mahdi who is the ruler of the Abbasid Dynasty IV.



The tradition began when the Caliph al-Mahdi pilgrimage Kaaba keeper then report back to him about kiswah which at that time already fragile and it is feared will fall. Hearing worrying reports that Al-Mahdi ordered that every year kiswah replaced.


Since then, the Kaaba kiswa to always be replaced each year in the pilgrimage season and became a tradition that should always be run. Thus there is no longer a condition kiswah concern.

Because, every kiswah only have a lifetime of Kaaba for one year. In fact, the Kaaba was used kiswah was cut into pieces and then the pieces are sold to decorate the home or office.









9 Unique Concept Beds Year 2012


You're bored with the current design of the bedroom? Maybe it's time you need to replace your mattress with a futon mattress as unique as strange photo below:

1. Unique Mattress Sandwich


2. Unique mattress Hamburger


3. Unique mattress Geese


4. Unique mattress of Rattan


5. Mattress Unique Skull Heads


6. Unique mattress Ball

7. Mattress Unique Ford



8. Mattress Unique Birdcage


9. Unique mattress Napshell

Hopefully the picture above unique bed will inspire and refresh the atmosphere of your bedroom. Good luck!



10 Excess Women than Men

Most women admire men of course. But some research suggests that in fact she has some amazing advantages compared with men. This is summarized Cosmopolitan, and the following results: 1. Women evolved to be more beautiful. A study showed that women evolved to be more beautiful, while men are so-so only. In a study of more than two thousand people over the past four decades, it was concluded that women look attractive with children 16 percent more than the look mediocre. Furthermore, it turns out the possibility of these beautiful women have a girl as their first child more than the other 36 percent. 2. Women more likely to survive a car crash. It's sad, but that's reality. Based on research by Carnegie Mellon University, in Pittsburgh, the United States, men are 77 percent more likely to die in car accidents than women. Supposedly, the men thank the women who nag him to wear a seatbelt.


3. Women are more prone to feel comfortable.

Based on a survey of two thousand people, it turns out she's much easier to talk about it than men. As many as 53 percent of women talk about the problem on their friends, while the man who told the problem is only 29 percent.

4. Women are more recession-resistant.

According to a Bureau of Labor Statistics, 80 percent of people who lost their jobs since December 2007, was male. This is probably due to the jobs men who dominated the hardest hit by the global recession. It sucks, but maybe it's time to switch the work of Adam to be a nurse or a teacher.

5. Women more likely to graduate college.

As we know, more women enrolled in college than men. A statistics reveal that men who graduated and earned a bachelor also apparently less than women. Most of the men turned out to take longer than five years to complete their studies.

6. Women eat more healthily.

Research on approximately 14 thousand people conducted by the University of Minnesota, USA, showed that more women than men choose healthy foods. When a man would rather eat frozen meals or fast food such as red meat and pizza, the women actually put a number of fruits and vegetables in their dishes. It sounds healthy, but she also had to treat addiction to chocolate is hard to break.

7. Stronger immune women.

No wonder when men act like a baby when they have a cold. In fact, women have immune system stronger than men. When there is fighting in the body, women have a secret weapon that the hormone estrogen. Research from McGill University, Canada, showed that estrogen can overcome enzymes that interfere with the body's defense against bacteria
and viruses.

8. Women live longer.

Among the world's population, 85 per cent of people aged over 100 years old are women. According to the New England Centenarian study, most women live five to 10 years longer than men.



9. Women can be a better boss.

This may be a bit controversial. Some experts confidently found that women may be more powerful bosses than men. This is because she is a great listener and a better mentor. In addition, women also can solve problems better, and work two to three jobs at once.

In an article in the Daily News, recently, an expert said that the current economy is more service-oriented, so that employees can be more encouragement is needed. Women rated as liaison better than men, and more astute in giving encouragement to the workers.

10. Women invest better.

Research on 100 thousand investment portfolio indicates that women are more conducive to investment than men. The comparison is 18 percent compared to 11 percent. This is probably because women are more careful with their investment decisions and long-term thinking.